Originally, the Nile River divided Egypt into 2 lands - Upper Egypt (the valley) and Lower Egypt (the delta). The banks of the Nile were low and flat. The Nile was bordered by red land and low desert.

The Valley of the Nile ranges between 1- 12 miles wide but is 3,700 miles long. This is longer than the US from coast to coast. This area was known as Ta-shema, land of the reeds.

The Delta was north of Memphis. Memphis was the most inhabited area in the ancient world. The Nile divides into channels to form a delta. Most of the land is swampy which made it hard to invade, but some is good for farming. This area was known as Ta-mehu, which means land of the papyrus.



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Cataracts - Cataracts are rapids. In total, there are 6 cataracts, which made the Nile difficult to sail.

The Western Desert is known as Deshret - the red land of the desert. Although the desert was dry, a few places had enough water to grow crops. These places are known as oases. Also, the Western Desert was a source of sandstone for monuments, held a barrier against invasion, and provided a safe trading route to Africa.

The Eastern Desert had no oases which made it hard to travel. Luckily, it proved useful for it contained gold and other valuable minerals.

Every September, almost to the day, the Nile flooded the valley. This left a layer of black silt known as Kemet. The people called themselves remt-en-Kemet - people of the black lands. The soil was so fertile that the farmers could grow multiple crops a year.